Step by Step Guide: How to use SPSS

SPSS is a computer statistical program designed for statistical analysis, text analytics, and data mining. Developed by IBM Corporation, it is very popular with academic researchers and individuals that have to analyze a lot of statistics. Learning how to use SPSS will take some time, as it is a very powerful program. However, the guide below will give you an idea of how it works.


Step 1


After installing the program, import the data you want to edit, such as a CSV or Excel file. Simply click “Open Another Type of File” and select the file. If you want to put in new data, choose “Type in Data”. Click OK when you have selected a data source.


Step 2


SPSS has two views where you can edit data: Variable and Data view. At the variable view, categories can be edited as well as the variable’s name and other information.


Step 3


The next step is to choose a stats test; after entering your data, you can format it. Click the Analyze button to choose one of the statistical tests available. Make sure that your syntax is in place before you do any statistical tests. The syntax is pasted into another file.


Step 4


After running your statistical tests, you’ll be able to see the output from another window.


How to Combine Variables


Step 1


Click File and Open, and choose the file you want to open.


Step 2


After clicking Data View, your data will be shown.


Step 3


Click Transform and choose “Compute” from the menu. Enter the variable’s name below “Target Variable”. When studying how to use SPSS, remember that this is the name for the variables you’ll be combining.


Step 4


Under “Type&Label”, you’ll see all your variables. Click your first variable and add it. The variable will be placed in “Numeric Expression.”


Step 5


After clicking the plus sign, it will be set next to the “Numeric

Expression” box.


Step 6


Look for the next variable on the list and follow the steps above.


Step 7


Once all your variables are added, click OK and the new total is going to show up in the variables’ right side.


Multiplying Variables


Step 1


Click Transform and choose Computer. Type a name for your variable at “Target Variable”.


Step 2


Follow the steps described above to add variables, but instead of clicking the plus sign, click the multiply sign.


Step 3


Click the names of the variables you want to multiply; click OK when you are done.


Calculating Normalized Data


Step 1


Click File and then Open.


Step 2


Open the dialogue box “Descriptives” and Choose “analyze”. Select “Descriptive Statistics” and then “Summarize.” From the drop down box that appears, choose “Descriptives”.


Step 3


To get the mean and standard deviation (the square of the variance): choose the variable with the data that has to be normalized. Choose Options and select “Mean and Std. Deviation”. After clicking “Continue” choose OK.


Step 4


Click “Transform” and choose “Compute”. In the “Target Variable” box type “normalize”. Under “Numerical Expression,” type: “(data name, “-“, the mean, “)”, “/” and the standard deviation. Click OK.


These guidelines on how to use SPSS are only examples; it has many other features that allow you to perform other mathematical and statistical functions. The program is updated frequently, so its features can and do change often.

Jam is a free lancer writer of .


Inanimate Objects

The other day I bought a little wireless mouse for my lap top. I get home, excited about not having to use that touch pad thingie anymore, and I can’t for the life of me, open the package. It’s one of those sealed all around the edges, hard plastic packages. I started muttering expletives at whoever the idiot was that designed these things. Flipping it over several times, I decide the only way to do this without cutting myself is with scissors. I can’t find the scissors. Apparently the flashlight and the scissors are hanging out somewhere because I can never find it either.

In the midst of this debacle, I’m thinking I wasn’t meant to exist in the physical world. Somewhere along life’s path I chose an intellectual course over the physical one. Me thinking that is probably a self preservation trick, I’m sure. The kind the body produces to stop trauma. Still, it exasperates me. I seem to be constantly engaged in an endless war with inanimate objects. I am in total awe of pilots, skateboarders, circus acrobats and people who can rub their belly with one hand and pat their head with the other. How does that skateboard follow its owner’s feet into the air without the aid of velcro or rubber bands? It’s in utter contempt of gravity. Gravity rules me, why not them? And here I sit struggling with a hard plastic clamshell package. It’s going to hurt me before it’s all over with, I know it. For me, daily life is a comedy of minor mishaps. My patron saint should be Tim the tool man Taylor.

I have a pot on the counter that has been soaking for most of the day. (Yeah, I can’t cook beans either) It’s literally three feet from the paper towel dispenser. I want one, single paper towel, and the entire roll falls perfectly in the pot. A math professor couldn’t have calculated the exact trajectory any better. I add one magazine to the pile next to the toilet, and triggered an avalanche of paper that sent my dogs into hysterics. I pull my boat registration sticker out of the envelope, dropped it at the foot of my work bench and watched it vanish into thin air.

I know I invite most of these disasters through my own ignorance. Stuff like placing a glass of tea on the sofa cushion. The cushion is firm and level, the glass is three-quarters empty and the dogs are nowhere in sight. It is a blatant infraction of universal law. I trust the sofa and the laws of physics to hold the glass upright, and I’m always shocked when it fails. Some people just have a better understanding of nature and physics than others. It must be in the DNA. The forces that govern my world refuse to tolerate even a minimal level of risk. I remove a freshly broiled steak from the oven, balancing it on a spatula in one hand while transferring it to my plate with the other. The spatula is wide enough, my hand is steady enough, and at the last second, the spatula tilts one degree farther than the maximum steak flip angle. I carefully arrange all the grocery bags on the seat of my truck. A highly trained NASA engineer couldn’t do it any better, then drive home. You would think I could complete the twenty minute trip home with the grocery bags intact. Of course not. They fall in the floorboard, mostly upside down, and the contents always achieve a perfect state of chaos.

Knowing these things are going to happen should stop me from trying to put the steak on a plate with one hand or walking anywhere near the paper towels but it doesn’t. It is against my very nature. A cat may land feet first but buttered bread always lands butter side down. And shouting at grocery bags? Save your breath. Apparently they only hear what they want to hear.

Take Advantage of Search Engines

Search engines are very popular both for mere Internet users and for those who are out in the online arena to earn an amount of revenue. Regardless of what your purpose might be, it is important that you understand how to use a search engine properly.


Different Results


Search engine results vary according to the search engine you are using. The best search engines are Google, Yahoo!, and Altavista. They offer the most useful results, relevant to what you are looking for.


Assuming you are making an easy search, make sure that you think out a bunch of keywords or phrases to put into the search bar, which will most likely give satisfactory results. Instead of searching with the vague “music”, you may make your search keyword “J.Lo music” so you get results that are closer to what you are looking for exactly. Vague search keywords will return a lot of junk while specific search keywords will return more satisfactory results.


If your search does not give you satisfactory results, you may try other search engines such as Webcrawler, Hotbot, and AskJeeves. If that, too, is no effective, you may also use directories. They are most useful if you are looking for background information on something. However, if you are looking for an answer to a question, whether it is a simple or complicated one, your chances would not look good enough with directories.


Your search terms or keywords are the heart and soul of the results you will yield. Try changing your search terms in order to find exactly what you are looking for. Think about specifications in terms of proper names of places, people, and things that are involved in your search. Also, if your search is returning a lot of junk, you may put in a plus sign (+) before the word to make sure it is being recognized and is not ignored. If you want a word in your search phrase excluded from the search, put a minus sign (-) in front of it. Also, you may enclose your search terms in quotation marks (“) to force the search engine to find what you are looking for in that exact, same string.


Another tip in using search engines is to try searching within some sites that offer a search bar. If you have Internet security related questions, for example, you could just search within the CNET website, instead of going for Yahoo.


When using search engines, you have to be very creative. You have to think up words and phrases that will most likely return good results. Good results mean websites that are relevant to what you are looking for. If you are looking for an answer to a question, that good result is categorized as a satisfactory reply. If you are looking for a website that offers a particular service, a good result is reflected on sites that are accessible to you provide the services you are looking for. If you re looking for a product, that good result comes as the particular brand you are looking for.


In any case, website owners and developers strive hard to appear in the top pages of a search engine result. They make money out of doing that. So don’t be afraid about not finding what you are looking for. If you are able to provide the necessary search terms that will define it, you will have a good chance at finding it exactly as you wish.

Tim is a cool writer of .


Man Up: 5 Skills Every Man Should Have

Manliness is an acquired skill. Being a man is more than being born with a Y chromosomeit’s utilizing your time to educate yourself on the fundamentals of masculinity. Every male must burgeon from a boy to a fully-functional man throughout life. Among the critical array of skills every man should possess, here are five of the manliest.

Know How to Fix a Vehicle

The automobile is a complex machine with a complicated anatomy that takes years to master. The more repairs you can make yourself when fixing your automobile, the respectable your manliness. If you have a motorcycle, you should know how standard Honda motorcycle parts function and what to do with them. For all but the toughest repairs, mechanics should be used for convenience, not out of necessity. With that being said, don’t jeopardize your life and the lives of others by attempting to fix your car without the proper experience just for the sake of manliness. In addition to repairs, knowing how to replace a flat tire and jump start a car are essential skills for roadside emergencies.

Know How to Dress to Impress

It isn’t necessary to dress at the height of fashion everyday, but when you show up at a job interview or cocktail party, a man should know to formally dress in imposing attire. Every man’s wardrobe must contain a tailored suit, ironed dress shirt, vest and an assortment of ties. While we’re at it, add know how to tie a tie to this list.

If you can’t color coordinate, it’s never a bad idea to resort to the classic and timeless black suit, black shoes and white dress shirt.

Know How to Fire a Handgun

Learning how to fire a weapon is the easy part. It’s adhering to the rules and taking proper precautions that truly entitles a man to earn his firearm privileges. Know how to wield it with respect, care and safety. Always treat the firearm as if it were loaded and be mindful of the deadly weapon it is. Before you go shooting, ensure that the sight is aligned. Properly grip the weapon, assume the correct stance and place your finger on the trigger only when you are prepared to fire.

Know How to Cook

Cooking is not your spouse’s responsibility. Never leave her to toil away in the kitchen preparing your meal when you acquire two more than capable hands. A man must know how to cook, and cook well. The culinary arts are indeed an artit entails everything from proper cutting techniques, judicious use of seasonings and cooking that Porterhouse steak to an ideal medium rare.

Know How to Shine Your Shoes

Gather a tin of wax-based polish, horsehair buffing brush, polishing cloth and welt brush. Purchasing a shone shining kit will also do for beginners. Lay down a tarp or old towel for your work area. Begin by removing any surface dirt by using a damp cloth to wipe the exterior of your shoes. Rub down the welt strip with a damp welt brush. With a polishing cloth (an old T-shirt or sock will do), scrub in a liberal amount of polish with tight, circular motions. To achieve a spit-shine of sorts, lightly wet the polishing cloth beforehand. Allow a dry time of about ten minutes. The longest, most vigorous step is buffing your shoes. Use the horsehair buffing brush or soft cloth, and buff those shoes to a lustrous shine until your face peers back at you.


Woody Rivera

Woody is a writer who is fluent in Spanish and English and just picked up Rosetta Stone’s beginner French edition.

4 Ways to Easily Handle Difficult People


In life, we will always come across difficult people. We can’t always expect people to be essentially rational and to know that human nature makes them irrational will help in your social interactions. Most people are capable of fulfilling their social obligations in a normal way, despite being ruled by their emotions. But the ability to maintain a job, raise your children in a healthy environment, obey the law, and be responsible for your actions can often depend on your mental and social development, and most people act the way they were taught. Therefore, there is a right way and a wrong way to handle difficult people.

1. No Judgment

Regardless of how you feel about the person or situation, keeping judgment out of the interaction will assist in keeping it pleasant. We are often forced to interact with people of different moral stature, different lifestyle choices, or of different social status. During these interactions, keeping your judgment to yourself and overlooking the differences between you will allow you to concentrate on the subject of the conversation rather than the person.

2. Learn to Listen

We often like to believe we are right, regardless of whether it is true or not. When we believe we are right, we seldom listen to opposing sides. By listening to the other person and taking their views into consideration, you can bridge the gap and come to a better resolution. Listening and compromising is not the same as losing, but is rather a method to dilute a difficult situation.


3. Be Firm

As important as it is to be compassionate and non-judgmental, it is also important to not let people manipulate you. Being firm doesn’t always mean losing your temper and yelling. Most difficult people will try to manipulate you to bring you to their side of thinking and drag you into a confrontation. Not allowing these people to bully you while keeping your cool is a vital way to get your point across. Treat people with kindness, but don’t let them control you.

4. Discover what Matters

There is a reason you are involved in the confrontation. Whether it is work related, personal, or you are trying to get information, keeping your focus on what you’re working towards will help you get through many different difficult confrontations. Regardless of how you feel about the person or the situation, do your best to keep on track and get what you need from it. You don’t have to feel strongly for everyone you meet in the course of your life, you just have to feel strongly about your values and beliefs.

There is always a chance you will run into a difficult person as part of your everyday routine. How you handle these confrontations not only affect the outcome but will also help define the type of person you are. Engaging in heated arguments, applying judgment, and losing your temper will shadow the real reason you are there in the first place. Human beings can be ruled by emotions, but in social interactions, this doesn’t have to be a total disadvantage. Realize the emotional state of everyone you come in contact with and offer the empathy needed to help them feel at ease. This will prove your best weapon in dealing with difficult people.

Brent Davis is a writer for various sites on topics related to psychology and human behavior. If you have a knack for diffusing difficult situations, perhaps a degree in social work from or is the right career path for you.

Best Spots to find Gals For Dating

Finding ladies that you would really want to get together with and, maybe eventually, enjoy a wonderful and awesome relationship with isn’t as hard as it looks. During my various day to day adventures I frequently get asked by guys about places to meet women. There is, of course, the singles scene out within the bars and clubs all around the city but I really don’t advocate that one. It is not that just bad females go to night clubs; it’s that it is difficult to tell the good ones from the bad women.

You could meet women at work as well, but then again, I really do not advocate dating women at the work place. The trouble with that would be that, if matters do not work out, you are going to still have to work with each other and the situation may well be awkward to put it mildly.

Your mates know ladies that you haven’t come across before. Ask them to introduce you to these women. However, do avoid blind dates as a way to meet women. The majority of manuals on the subject of how to get a woman would advise you that this is never a smart tactic. Those situations rarely work out and also you can easily spend a great deal of cash to get a very miserable evening.

The most effective places to meet women that you could truly wish to date tend to be in groups and organizations which you are a member of. You will already have something in common with them and will have had the chance to see them communicate with other people and that lets you know a great deal about a person. In the event you aren’t currently affiliated with any clubs or organizations then, for goodness sake, enroll in one. Look for one or two which are about something you happen to be interested in. You will find clubs and establishments which cover pretty much everything you can think of from hiking to reading and single girls are generally engaged in all of these.

House of worship is a wonderful place to meet women. If there are not any single girls within the church that you go to now, visit other places of worship until you discover one where there are single females. The church itself will supply you with the chance to get acquainted with the woman before you ask the girl for a meeting. You are going to be a lot more comfortable and so will she.

Yet another good way to to get a girl friend is to get involved in civic groups. A lot of women like men who are social minded. They admire men who’re eager to contribute and do their bit in a communal perspective. Being involved in political functions could be another effective approach. You will meet many young females who’re enthusiastic about political activities.

However, if all else doesn’t work out, sign up to a very good matchmaking service. You should connect with a lot of eligible females. You can read through their profiles and view photographs of them. Choose a few of the girls that you like their profile and initiate contact with each. After that just continue with the natural process that you go through whenever you meet a girl that you want. bear in mind that how to pick up women online may be slightly variable to the traditional method.

When it comes to tips for men dating and dating women online there are numerous e-books to choose from about how to make use of online dating sites to find women. Unless you are an expert, it usually is recommended that you obtain at least one e books to help you along the way.

The Article writer, is a freelance matchmaking coach for guys. He teaches guys how to chat women up in virtually any scenario. He’s published a multitude of posts regarding meet women online. To read more of his post, click on the hyperlink within this resource box.

Men vs. Women

Why is it that God has seen fit to make women and men so different? Besides the obvious differences, genitalia, femininity, child bearing and menstrual cycles, there are a thousand diametrical contradictions between us. It’s because of his sense of humor, that’s why. He had just finished building the earth, heavens and eternity and when Sunday rolled around it was Miller time or something. He made Adam, borrowed a rib and then came Eve. THAT is where things got messed up right there. I bet the first thing Adam had to do was take out the trash, sore ribs and all. She didn’t care that God hadn’t created light yet. She was perfectly happy bitchin’ in the dark.

I’ve heard it said a million times that men will never understand women. I beg to differ. We DO understand women, we just don’t frickin believe it that’s all. Argue, argue, argue, bitch, bitch, bitch. Man. All the time. They say never go to bed mad at each other. Really? What does that even mean? Stay up and fight? Women know stuff that men don’t and it’s not fair. They have long memories too. Why is it that in the midst of a heated argument, they will bring up something that happened five years ago that has nothing to do with what we’re arguing about? Nothing. In shock, we stand there with that dumbfounded, deer in the headlights look trying to figure out what just happened. It changed the whole topic. And while we’re standing there in total disbelief trying to figure out what just happened, they are so far along in their wailing we have no choice but to give up and lose. It’s at this juncture we know it’s over and anything said past this point is the start of a brand new argument.

My wife not only knows every single birthday and anniversary in her family, but mine too! I don’t care who you are, this is contrary to the ordinary course of nature. Borderline savant. She’s damn hard to argue with I’ll tell you that. Sometimes I feel like we, as men, don’t have much of a chance. And boy do they love their children. I’m not saying men don’t, we do, just not like they do. Women know every little detail about them. Birthdays, allergies, likes, dislikes, boyfriends and how to buy school supplies. They know shoe sizes, how big they are in the waist, what their favorite colors are. Men are vaguely aware of some little people living in the house. In all fairness, and I’ve always said, if it weren’t for women there would be, like 6 people on the planet. Yeah we’re different. I guess it’s better that way somehow. I just wish the footing was a little more even that’s all.
As it is, women will always sit and listen to a ten year old for an hour talk about how he almost caught a fly ball, and be just as proud of them as they can be. But men? We’ll always want to knock a fart out of him for making an error in left field.

The 10 Most Common Cases When People Contact Trade Unions

Studies today reveal the magnanimous impact that trade unions have had both on members and non-members. The image of trade unions has undergone a drastic change over the past few decades such that today, they are primarily seen as a rallying force behind bringing major changes into a particular industry, its working conditions, pay scale increments and addition of fringe benefits. On an average, any industry that has a trade union (as the Danes say fagforening) tends to be more streamlined with less employee-employer spats. Here are ten distinct situations in which people have made or can contact a trade union to interfere.


Fight against discrimination

Sometimes, a worker may get discriminated against in the workplace. Regardless of the reason, it is wrong and a trade union can interfere by politely obliging the company to look into the matter.


For Better Wages

History is the best example of this cause. A majority of trade unions were established back in their hay days to deal with unfair wages and high working hours. Even today, industry norms are set unofficially by trade unions. A simple one day strike by a large union can cause a lot of damage to major players. Hence, unions play a pivotal role in the increment of base salaries.


For Fringe Benefits

There was a time when fringe benefits such as sick leave and paid leave were seldom heard of. If it were not for trade unions, people today would have to go without pay for having an accident or for maternity.


For Better Workplace 

Trade unions for laborers and workers have always been created to improve the working conditions of employees. In the past, holistic profits were seldom a priority for companies as they are today. Hence, the credit for improving working conditions for workers has to go to the demands made by trade unions in the past.


For Fighting Grievances

Trade Unions are charged with a responsibility to hear out the woes of their members and try their best to address them. A Union can get into talks with the employer and demand an investigation into the problems of the concerned employee if they feel that he or she is getting ill treated. They can also interfere on behalf of a company and discipline its employees if they get out of hand.


Reserves And Funds

Unions tend to amass funds through their members to protect the wards of their own. For example, unions that cater to Lifeguards and other such hazardous professions often have some fund that is regularly replenished from the salary of their members so as to help families who have lost their bread earner.


To Ask For Reforms

Trade Unions can act as lobbyists in most countries with their own political presence. This is probably the most influencing of all activities that trade unions do. By voicing themselves to leaders of the state of nation, the problems of their members are better addressed.


Fighting for Justice

If a member of a trade union believes that injustice has been done to them at the workplace, they can approach the union to intervene on their behalf and file an injunction for an investigation.


Aid Non-members

This advantage or case of trade unions is best explained through the example of the teachers union in the United States. Because of their efforts, union members received a perk in salary by 5 to 10% more. What is astounding is that non-members too got a higher pay package simply because of the actions of the union.


To Protect

In dire circumstances, Trade unions can file complaints and cases in the court on behalf of a member. They shall provide legal help and other required funding if they deem the case winnable or justified.

Keeping Proper Accountancy Documents Is Crucial For All Business Enterprises

For those who managed a business enterprise, Its very important for you to maintain acceptable paperwork all through the year . Any sort of undocumented expenses could well wind up being rejected, if inland revenue officers starts to check out one of your tax form. Typically the small business operator needs to keep every one of his / her bills, cancelled cheques, commercial bank files, as well as visa or mastercard records. Invoices and statements usually are verification of just what the business enterprise purchased as well as the day of acquisition. Credit card and banking account details, in addition to the cancelled cheque stubbs are frequently proof of the specific expenses.

Most <a href=””>accountants in Mill Hill will say that it i’s vital for the small business operator to have a place to manage papers and also get properly organised with the help of it on a normal basis putting bills that are related together. Then he must add up his expenditures accurately.

Internal revenue service has distinct regulations specifications with regard to fixed property. These are generally items that could be applied for company and also private needs. A few of these are motor vehicles, pcs, cell phones, and sound recording devices. For example, a computer employed for business that is located within a family home calls for some sort of usage record plus a car or truck needs some sort of mileage journal.

Using some end of the year taxation tips (blank) can earn significant dividends for the small enterprise operator. Often the company proprietor can easily increase tax reductions for the current year by maximizing expenditures reliefs. Put simply, acquire any items at the end of the year that could become utilised inside the initial three months of the following year. These items might be stationery or something else the company owner makes use of frequently in his company ventures that need to end up being purchased regularly.

Acquiring appliances at the end of the season is an extra taxation idea, if the owner was intending to buy shortly after that. Talk to your accountants with regards to your current firm scenario and structure to help you maximize your current deductions. Find out whether deducting the entire thing instantly or spreading the accounting allowance via a few yrs is significantly better.

Paying for expenditures such as mobile phone services, insurance policy, utility bills, travel bookings, upkeep, repairs, and also lease in advance will help lower a person’s income taxes. It may possibly turn out to be excellent for the smaller business manager to take advantage of stock write-offs simply by deducting for impaired goods along with outmoded merchandise. This is often dependent on the accounting system employed.

Often the company operator really should retain all of the tax files for seven yrs or further. It’s ideal to store copies of company taxes, capital costs, permits, formation records, along with cash apparatus expenses for as long as the business enterprise exists.

There exists precise taxation dates the small enterprise proprietor ought to be aware of to be able to fulfil income tax legal requirements. Some of these dates include the annual return thirty-one January dead line. The employees PAYE are due monthly or every 3 months. This will depend on the pay-roll range.

To receive more <a href=””>tax return service a company owner could go to the Inland Revenue business internet site. It consists of advice with regards to business enterprise structure, taxation deductions, along with employee taxes. It also provides a check-list to handle a company. It lists various other helpful government information which companies may find handy.

The writer works as a practising accountants in London and has operated for many years in the business of accountancy and taxation. If you want to discover further with regards to his services in starting limited company, go to his company site..